7e Congrès International d'Histoire des Sciences, à Jérusalem
HISTORY OF SCIENCE CONGRESS (RAMBAM)
On the occasion of the Seventh International Congress of the History of Science held in Jerusalem, a stamp honoring the rabbi, scholar, physician, scientist, and philosopher, Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon, known also by his initials as Rambam).
Born on March 30, 1135, in Cordova, Spain, to a scholarly father who was a dayyan (religious judge) and community leader, Maimonides early received a thorough education, both in Hebrew as well as Arabic literature, philosophy, and science.
In his early youth he witnessed the rise and conquests of the fanatical Almohades and the resulting decline and end of the golden era of Arabic-Moorish culture to which the Jews contributed significantly. Forced at the age of 13 to flee his native city, he and his family wandered for 10 years over North Africa and Palestine. Despite suffering during years of fear and oppression, he devoted himself to his studies and perfected himself in medicine to an extent that when he at last settled in Egypt, in the city of Fostat (now Cairo), he could establish himself as a practicing physician. He gained such renown that, after some years, he was appointed personal physician to the sultan Saladin the Great and later to his son.
Maimonides wrote many books and essays in the field of medicine, especially on hygiene and diet. Translated into Latin and subsequently into other languages, they are important contributions to the history of science. In addition, he wrote on astronomy.
In the sphere of Jewish Studies, his first major work was a commentary on the Mishnah written in Arabic. It is the first attempt at the scientific clarification of the language and a rational Aristotelian explanation in a clear, simple manner as to the meaning and portent of all the traditional religious laws.
While Maimonides continued as physician at the Court, his fame and authority as rabbi and leader was established. About the year 1180 he became head of the Cairo Jewish community, which meant, in fact, of all Egypt and Palestine as well as the rest of the Near East.
The height of his philosophical creative genius comes to light in his Moreh Nevukhim (The Guide of the Perplexed).
He died in Egypt on December 13, 1204; his remains were taken to Tiberias for burial. Maimonides’ grave is a well-visited place of pilgrimage.
Portrait de Rabbi Moshe Ben Maimon (1135-1204)
Informations techniques :
Billet de banque avec l'effigie de Maïmonide
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